Somaliland System Building And The Background Of Nation Building!
Somaliland is a democratic government and society starting from the country’s reborn in 1991, republic of Somaliland made a progress the great solutions for internal problems like peace building and treaties agreements between Somaliland tribes that are against and confronted each other during wars between armed rebellion organizations and the military regime of Somalia.
The people of Somaliland was built a system of government referenced by the older Somaliland protectorate, which was getting back their independence 26-June-1960 Great Britain , after five days of independence Somaliland recklessly joined Somalis under Italian colony 1 July 1960 the aim was to unite five Somalis in eastern Africa , French Somaliland ( Djibouti ) , Somaliland British protectorate ( Somaliland ) , Italian Somalia ( J.F.S Somalia ) , Somali Kenyans (NFD), and Somalis under Ethiopian administration (Zone five ) .
The union dream of greater Somalia was unsuccessful when three other Somalis was not part of that union, whether some of them were under other administration that was not obeying and accept their independence.
First year of the union Somaliland scouts prepared and attempted military coup 1961 how to return back their earlier independence of 26 June 1960 when they felt suddenly injustice and the unity being the southern was dominated by the northern, starting from that day till the destruction of Somali republic 1988 there are different desired struggles and freedom fighters want to regain their earlier independence.
The Somalia regime collapse in 1991 the Somali National Movement was held a peace conference in Burao as I mentioned above and proclaimed the government called today Republic of Somaliland and build first government of Somaliland their mandate was two years only , that governments leaders was Somali national movement chairman and vice chairman .
The war veteran and the SNM chairman and vice chairman was returned back the leadership and their mandate term was two years, the second Somaliland rebuilding conference was held in Borama 1993. This conference is one of the most successful achievement and goals that Somaliland people was made and produced by peace charter, national charter and elected second Somaliland president, also elected the members of the houses of legislative.
The third Somaliland conference was held in Hargeisa the capitol City of Somaliland in the year 1997, this conference outcome was the third presidential elections, the second election of Somaliland legislative houses and elected the total Mps of 164 (both houses), also the results of this conference one of it was to start a new national constitution draft, this constitutional referendum was held 31-May-2001.
After referendum result 97% accepted yes vote the new constitution, Somaliland is through the constitutionalism system and country’s political system be a multiparty system of democracy as a article nine of the constitution was written , and Somaliland was held eight democratic elections consist of three presidential elections, two parliamentary elections and three local councilors elections within twenty years (2001 up to 2021).
Somaliland was not still recognized by the international community and it was de-facto state that fulfilled all four state requirements as a Montevideo charter 1952 defined the state, but Somaliland is a entity that was made more diplomatic engagements to the other world and its special significant are peace, political stability, democratic elections and free press according to the horn of Africa and other continent.
SOMALILAND’S THREE INCOMING ELECTIONS WITH IN THIS YEAR 2022 AND THEIR IMPORTANCE.
One of most strange things Somaliland successfully made was how the elections was held, how the people of Somaliland safeguard their own political participation rights and one of the incoming elections was the third political organizations and parties election that give a good chance that every somalilander can participate politics and exercise his own political rights that gives constitution articles 22 and 23.
Other important election was Somaliland’s house of elders elections that was not held till 1997, the incumbent mps was exceeded their constitutional mandate of 19 years lack of elections , and the interchangeable governments made unlawful mandate extensions because the constitutional symptoms articulation that must be extended their mandate wasn’t happen during that nineteenth years .
The third election was the fourth presidential election during countries constitutionalism process , these three elections are more important at this time according how the world is evaluated the republic of Somaliland , but there is no agreed agreements for election stakeholders and also the electoral processor institutions hasn’t figured out the elections schedule .
My perspective its compulsory the elections agreed mandate was done immediately because there is no time and day by day we were towards the elections period, another impact is if the elections wasn’t held during their mandate can cause internal and external negative event like countries stability isn’t well, and the international community interesting the Somaliland’s progress of democratizations, rule of law and good governance was not functioning well.
All in All the all incoming Somaliland elections stakeholders and the government institutions those whose job description is electoral system must made an immediate compromise how the nations national interest wasn’t fall down , and all somalilanders get their own constitutional rights and political participation for the incoming elections .
BY; Mohamed Abdi Jama “M. Dhimbiil”
27- march – 2022