What Would Mr. Musa, the President of Somaliland say to the Prime Minister of Ethiopia if he were In Framago’s place In Recent Ethipian Prime Minister’s Visit to Mogadishu?
June 16, 2018 - Written by Editor:


I listened (short) the exchange of speeches of Mr. Framago, the President of Mogadishu and Mr. Ahmed, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia which took place in Mogadishu of Somalia.

1-both of them were (mainly) talked in the present and the future tenses

2- the prime Minister of Ethiopia read his aspirational laundry list

3- the president of Somalia repeated what the prime Minister of Ethiopia articulated except with rhe addition of thanked the prime Minister the Ethiopian bloodshed for Somalia skipped the Somali blood there!

What would Mr. Musa the President of Somaliland say to the Prime Minister of Ethiopia if he were in Framago’s place or if the Ethiopian Prime Minister visits Hargeisa or if President Musa visits Addisababa.   Most probably he would say what has been articulated below: (The relationship of Somaliland and Ethiopia is centuries old so it must endure this article authored by Iberahim M Mead was written in 2013

IThe relationship of Somaliland and Ethiopia is centuries old so it must endure

….this relationship must persevere and live longer forever, for the interest of all.

The relationship between Somaliland and Ethiopia regarding people to people relationship and the free movement of people and trade as well as the security aspects must not be disturbed in any way; it must be enhanced and maintained regularly.
This is a way forward for keeping and sustaining the stability and security of the Horn of Africa. It is one way of helping the people of both countries and those of the region at large. It is a way to help- the peoples-help-themselves. It is a way to defeat the common enemies of both countries who ever they may be.

The relationship between Ethiopia and Somaliland goes back to thousands of years, when Somaliland was known as the land of punt and Ethiopia was referred as the land where Gods love to be in the days of the Egyptian pharaohs.

Other relationships can be traced back from King, Ashama Ibn Abjar, to Emperor Menelek II, to the subsequent governments, to Haile Mariam to Late Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and to the present Prime Minister, his excellence Hailemariam Desalegn

The first Somaliland migration was the 3rd Muslim migration to Ethiopia

Ethiopia has a history of saving people running from persecution by their own; starting from the first Muslim migration in 614-615 BH to Somaliland migration to Ethiopia in the1980s
The Somaliland migration to Ethiopia in 1980-1991 could be called the 3rd Muslim migration to Ethiopia. The first Muslim migration to Ethiopia of 614-615 BH and the Somaliland migration to Ethiopia in the1980s had similar circumstances. Both the peoples were running from the persecutions and sufferings borne by what was considered as their kinsmen. In the case of the Muslims from Mecca, they sought refuge from Qurash persecution.  In the case of Somaliland it was the government of Mogadishu which was considered as theirs which committed the persecution and ethnic cleansing.
In both cases it was Ethiopia and their rulers who saved the “Sahabah of the prophet” and the targeted people of Somaliland in different times in history for different reasons but from the same end- persecution of innocent people! It was Ethiopia which welcomed these peoples and accepted them in their home land with out hesitation. They comforted them when they needed that most.

The first Muslim migration to Ethiopia

“The Muslims who originally converged in Mecca sought refuge from Qurash persecution in the Kingdom  of Aksum in BH (614–615 CE.)
This act is known as the first migration to Abyssinia, the hardships and sufferings borne by the Muslims were from their kinsmen.  Prophet Mohamed (pbuh) at last permitted the believers to immigrate to some other place. The Muslims immigrated to Ethiopia known than as Abyssinia. At that time Ethiopia was ruled by a Christian King Ashama ibn Abjar who (according to Muslim tradition, later embraced Islam) was famous for his compassion and equity. In Rajab of the fifth year of the mission, the first group migrated to Axum. This is known as the first migration to Axum. Later on, a bigger group immigrated to Axum (separately). This is called the second migration to that country. Some Sahabah took part in both the migrations.”
Somaliland and Ethiopia had centuries old relationship with the exception of a short period of time between1960-1990 when Somaliland entered an ill-fated union with Somalia in an illegitimate way which eventually ended in May, 1991 when Somaliland reinstituted its 1960 government in her soil after long struggle where hundreds of thousands lost their lives and billions of dollars were stolen, robbed and ransacked from Somaliland by Somalia.

Addis Ababa treaty

When Somaliland was under British Protectorate the first treaty known as the Addis Ababa treaty signed by the Emperor Menelek II and the representative of Britain took place at Addis Ababa on e May 14th 1897. Queen Victoria ratified on 28th July 1897.

Some Articles and annex of that treaty excluded demarcation of the border between Somaliland and Ethiopia are here cited as:
The Treaty 

“Her majesty Queen Victoria having appointed as her special Envoy and Representative to his Majesty the Emperor Menelek II, James Rennell Rodd, Esq whose full powers have been found in due and proper form, and his majesty the Emperor Menelek, negotiating in his own name as king of kings of Ethiopia, they have agreed upon and do conclude the following articles, which shall be binding on themselves their heirs and successor.”
Article I “The subject of our persons protected by each of the contracting parties shall have full liberty to come and go and engage in commerce in the territories of the other, (British Somaliland protectorate and Ethiopia) enjoying the protection of the government within whose jurisdiction they are, but it is forbidden for armed bands from either side to cross to the frontier of the other on any pretext without previous authorization from the competent authorities.”
Article II “The frontier of the British protectorate on the Somaliland coast recognized by the Emperor Menelek shall be determined subsequently by exchange of notes between James Rennell Rodd Esq., as Representative of her Majesty
the Queen and Ras Maconen as representative of His Majesty the Emperor Menelek at Harrar. These notes shall be annexed to the present treaty, of which they will form an integral part, as soon as they have received the approval of the high contracting parties, pending which the states quo shall be maintained.”
Article III “The caravan route between Zeiyla of Somaliland and Harrar of Ethiopia by way of Gildessa shall remain open throughout its whole extent to the commerce of both nations- Somaliland and Ethiopia.
Article IV “His Majesty the Emperor of Ethiopia on the one hand, accords to Great Britain and her colonies, in respect of import duties and local taxation, every advantage, which he may accord to subjects of other nations, On the other hand, all material destined exclusively for the service of the Ethiopian State shall, on application from his Majesty the Emperor, be allowed to pass through the port of Zeiyla into Ethiopia Free of duty.”
Annex 1 “To your Majesty, With reference to Article II of the treaty, which we are to sign today, my Government instructs me, in the event of a possible occupation by Ethiopia of territories inhabited by tribes who have formerly accepted and enjoyed British protection in the districts excluded from the limits of the British protectorate in Somaliland, as recognized by your Majesty, to bring to your knowledge the desire of her Majesty the Queen to receive from your Majesty an assurance that it will be your special care that these tribes receive equitable treatment , and are thus no losers by this transfer of suzerainty.” ((Ref: British Somaliland protectorate archives. this paper referred herein was among the documents burned down by Mr. Bili Rafli, the governor of Hargeisa who represented the genocidal regime of Siyad Barre.)

 SNM was the first to established the people to people relationship with Ethiopia which took root

Abdillahi yussuf’s Salvation Front was in Ethiopia long before SNM opened its base there in 1982. In 1987 the author was told by an advisor and an interpreter for the deposed Haile Merriam that in a meeting between president Haile Merriam and Abdillahi Yussuf, the later put a blank pager and a pen in front of Haile Merriam and told him to write what ever he wanted for pay back if he secures central somalia for him!! No response came from the Ethiopian leader at that point”.

When SNM came later to Ethiopia in 1982 President Haile Merriam asked SNM leadership what they would do for Ethiopia when they liberate their country from Siyad Barre of Mogadishu.

a-“SNM leadership told the President that first they did not want any Ethiopian solder to die for their fight, how ever they promised the leader that they will do the following:
1) that they will create an environment where by the two peoples understand each other  more, dispel prejudices, communicate ,cooperate and establish free movement of people and goods across borders.
2) War between the two brotherly peoples will cease, and the horn of Africa will be in peace. These are what we can promise you Mr. President” they said. This relationship established then, and it is thriving and it must endure for ever.

SNM succeeded to turn Ethiopia which was considered as a traditional enemy of the Somalis in the recent history in to a reliable brother of the Somalis.

Ethiopia saved (by giving a safe heaven) and supported the people of Somaliland who were massacred indiscriminately by the Mogadishu regime of Siyad Barre by letting them fight back and liberate their country. Ethiopia supported the 2nd Republic of Somaliland. Somaliland has definitely benefited from this cordial relationship, so was Ethiopia in people to people free movement and trade. Open borders policy was created as a result of people to people interactions and communications, and that facilitated the free movements of people and trade, thus people believed each other and then the special relationship took root. Thanks to SNM and subsequent administrations of Somaliland.

The animosity and mistrust between the two peoples especially in 1960-1980 had been flipped thanks to SNM and Ethiopian administration reciprocally did likewise. The two governments later enhanced this task even further. This effort dispelled mistrusts between the two countries. Cooperation in the areas of trade and security and free movement of people and trade was established by the governments of Ethiopia and Somaliland later on.

thus that was and is the history of Somaliland and Ethiopia

However peace and prayers

Ibrahim Mead

Ottawa, Canada


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